Grammar, alamaakk..,

Jujur aja, kalau ngomongin masalah grammar dalam Bahasa Inggris, alamaak ribet dah. Banyak banget aturannya. Belum mulai belajar aja udah mau nyerah. Bisa dibilang males mlajarin aturan-aturan kebahasaannya. Awalnya aku berpikir, kita tetap bisa menggunakan bahasa inggris tanpa tahu grammar secara baik, yang penting tahu kosa katanya aja sudah cukup. Tapi setelah dipikir-pikir lagi, itu hanya berlaku untuk percakpan informal saja. Kalau sudah diminta untuk berbicara formal, nulis sebuah artikel, essay, atau nulis apapun dalam bahasa Inggris, baru ketahuan seberapa pentingnya grammar itu.

Nah berhubung aku juga dapet mata kuliah bahasa Inggris, dan salah satu pustaka penunjangnya tentang grammar-“A Practical English Grammar karya A.J. Thomson dan A.V. Martinet”, aku nulis aja sedikit tentang isinya. Walaupun masih versi inggris, tapi gak apa” sih. Nanti aku tulis dah versi terjemahannya, hehe.

Nah untuk pokok bahasan pertama adalah tentang “Articles and one, a little/ a few, this, that”

Apa aja sih yang harus diketahui tentang penggunaan “Articles and one, a little/ a few, this, that”?, nah baca aja tulisan di bawah ini. Masih dalam bahasa inggris sih. Hehe.

1. a/an (the indefinite article)

The form a is used before a word beginning with a consonant, or a vowel with a consonant sound:

a man           a hat     a university         a European         a one-way street

The form an is used before words beginning with a vowel (a, e, I, o, u) or words beginning with a mute h:

an apple              an island              an uncle               an egg                  an onion              an hour

or individual-letters spoken with a vowel sound:

an L-plate                            an MP                   an SOS                  an ‘x’

a/an is the same for all genders:

a man   a woman             an actor               an actress           a table

                       

2. Use of a/an

a/an is used:

A. Before a singular noun which is countable (i.e. of which there is more than one) when it is mentioned for the first time and represents no particular person or thing:

I need a visa.      They live in a flat.             He bought an ice-cream.

B. Before a singular countable noun which is used as an example of a class of things:

          A car must be insured = All cars/Any car must be insured.

          A child needs love = All children need/Any child needs love.

C. With a noun complement. This includes names of professions:

          It was an earthquake.   She’ll be a dancer.           He is an actor

D. In certain expressions of quantity:

          a lot of                  couple

          a great many     a dozen (but one dozen is also possible)

a great deal of

E. With certain numbers:

          a hundred           a thousand

Before half when half follows a whole number:

1 kilos = one and a half kilos or a kilo and a half

But  kg = half a kilo (no a before half), though a + half + noun is sometimes possible:

a half-holiday    a half-portion    a half-share

With,, etc. a is usual: a third, a quarter etc., but one is also possible.

F. In expressions of price, speed ratio etc.:

          5p a kilo               £1 a metre           sixty kilometres an hour

          10p a dozen        four times a day

(Here a/an = per.)

G. In exclamations before singular, countable nouns:

          Such a long queue!         What a pretty girl!

          Such long queues!           What pretty girls!

H. A can be placed before Mr/Mrs/Miss + surname:

          a Mr Smith          a Mrs Smith        a Miss Smith

a Mr Smith means ‘a man called Smith’ and implies that he is a stranger to the speaker. Mr Smith, without a, implies that the speaker knows Mr Smith or knows of his existence.

3. Omission of a/an

a/an Is omitted:

  1. Before plural nouns.

               a/an has no plural form. So the plural of a dog is dogs, and of an egg is eggs.

  1. Before uncountable nouns.
  2. Before names of meals, except when these are preceded y an adjective:

              We have breakfast at eight.

              He gave us a good breakfast.

The article is also used when it is a special meal given to celebrate something or in someone honour:

I was invited to dinner (at their house, in the ordinary way) but

I was invited to a dinner given to welcome the new ambassador.

4. a/an and one

A. a/an and one(adjective)

1. When counting or measuring time, distance, weight etc. We can use either a/an or one for the singular:

£1 = a/one pound            £1,000,000 = a/one million pounds

But note that The rent is £100 a week the a before week is not replaceable by one.

In other types of statement a/an are not normally interchangeable, because one + noun normally means ‘one only/not more than one’ and a/an does not mean this:

      A shotgun is no good. (It is the wrong sort of thing.)

One shotgun is no good. (I need two or three.)

2. Special uses of one

a)      One (adjective/pronoun) used with another/others:

One (boy) wanted to read, another/others wanted to watch TV.

One day he wanted his lunch early, another day he wanted it late.

b)      One can be used before day/week/month/year/summer/winter etc. or before the name of the day or month to denote a particular time when something happened:

One night there was a terrible storm.

One winter the snow fell early.

One day a telegram arrived.

c)       One day can also be used to mean ‘at some future date’:

One day you’ll be sorry you treated him so badly.

(Some day would also be possible.)

B. a/an and one (pronoun)

One is the pronoun equivalent of a/an:

Did you get a ticket? – Yes, I managed to get one.

The plural of one used in this way is some:

Did you get tickets? – Yes, I managed to get some.

Nah, segini dulu ya, nanti aku lengkapin lagi. Makasi banyak uda baca.

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